Text and photo by Miguel Omaña.
Once the capital of Tlatoani (ruler) Netzahualcoyotl, a member of the Triple Alliance (popularly known as the Aztec Empire), and home of master artisans.
I will be visiting the most important ancient Mexican cities during the time of the Chichimec Domain (way before the Mexica Aztecs, and immediate predecesor to the Tepanec rule). These places appear in my novel Till Stars Shut Their Eyes. You can locate them in the map I did on amatl paper.
Texcoco was one of the three capitals of the Triple Alliance, popularly known as Aztec Empire.
This is Texcoco, previously known as Tetzcoco – or perhaps Tetzcuco, since their people were known to accentuate the “u” instead of the “o” in Nahuatl language. One of the three major capitals (or heads) that governed the Triple Alliance (popularly known as Aztec Empire in Academia and the media) along Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan.
Visiting Texcoco, Mexico, one of the places that appear in my novel. Copyright 2015 Miguel Omaña.
Don’t be fooled by the green, there’s a Burger King nearby.
Don’t be fooled by the green and the ruined promontory that perhaps was a temple in other times this is Texcoco’s downtown. The site is called Los Melones and is surrounded by schools, a Burger King and other Mexican restaurants and retail stores. Since Texcoco was an important city after the arrival of the Hispanics, everything that was once Texcoco was destroyed except this rather small (very small) area. Or perhaps much remains underneath just like in Mexico City’s downtown, were every month city workers keep uncovering the ancient Mexica capital underneath modern-day streets, churches, and buildings.
As a Chichimec capital Texcoco rose with prestige.
After Quinatzin Tlaltecatzin moved the Chichimec capital from Tenayuca to Texcoco, the city gained prominence in the Eastern Lands of the Valley of Mexico. At one time, Texcoco was the capital of all the Chichimec Domain, but later diminished to become capital of a country loosely named Acolhuacan. As an Acolhua capital, its territory went from Southern Hidalgo state to the northern towns of Morelos state.
There were universities, libraries, and courts in ancient Texcoco.
After the Tepanec Wars, Netzahualcoyotl of Texcoco not only gained independence for his nation from Azcapotzalco, but also to the Mexica. Being his home, Tlatoani (ruler) Netzahualcoyotl established universities, libraries, schools, and courts – but he never forgot his cousins the Mexica. He also did a great deal for Tenochtitlan especially concerning engineering works.
The Hispanics fought a naval battle against the natives.
After the Toxcatl massacre in Tenochtitlan, the Hispanics went to war against the Mexica, and they used Texcoco as their base. The city was close to the lake, so they used it to their advantage and built small ships called bergantines. With their small fleet, the Europeans in coalition with Cholulteca, Huexotzinca, Tlaxcalteca, and Otomí engaged the Mexica fleet and sieged the city with cannons.
Texcoco’s role became diminished, and was even witness to one of the worst police abuse in Western history.
After the fall, Texcoco was still an important city, so much that at some point it was the capital of the State of Mexico (a state that surrounds Mexico City). But the mexiquense capital was changed, and Texcoco importance was suddenly halted. The destruction of Lake Texcoco did not help either. Without its lake and prestige, Texcoco suddenly found itself in the middle of nowhere. At the beginning of the 21st century Texcoco and its vicinity suffered police abuse, riots broke, and then governor Peña Nieto’s state police raped, abused, and dissappeared people in the area, especially in Atenco, a few miles to the northwest. Today, the Mexiquense highway (sort of a loop of gargantuan proportions that surrounds Mexico City) has brought new life to the area, although the local people is wary since it has already attracted the gigantic new Mexico City airport to be built nearby.
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